By Anna Stunkel, Derby Hill Hawk Counter, Spring 2018
Introductory Note from the Counter
Last spring, I had the amazing opportunity to count at Derby Hill, and decided to return this year for a second season. After spending the prior spring counting at Derby Hill, it was interesting to compare species abundances and migration timing between the two seasons. My additional hawkwatching experience includes time spent counting at several fall and spring hawkwatch locations: Hawk Hill, CA, Lucky Peak, ID, Bradbury Mountain State Park, ME, and Kiptopeke State Park, VA.
Derby Hill is special in that the migration is very intense here at the southeastern corner of Lake Ontario. This is especially true during the period when adult raptors are in a hurry to make it up to establish their breeding territories. Migrants are generally reluctant to fly over large bodies of water, and Derby Hill is located right where birds are turning the corner of the lake. As a result of this geography, many migrating birds concentrate as they follow the shoreline. The sheer volume of flights—especially Broad-winged Hawk and Turkey Vulture movements—is like nothing I have ever seen in other locations. The numbers of Rough-legged Hawks and Bald Eagles at this site also amazed me, as did the scale of non-raptor flights and overall movements. Like last year, it was an unforgettable spring.
From 1 March to 31 May 2018, 57,343 migrant raptors of 17 species were noted during 614 hours of observing from the North and South Lookouts at Derby Hill Bird Observatory near Mexico, NY, Oswego County. Rarities included four Black Vultures and one Swallow-tailed Kite. Within the official count period, new season highs were set for Bald Eagles and Peregrine Falcons. This was the fourth Swallow-tailed Kite recorded at Derby Hill. Turkey Vulture numbers were only slightly lower than last year, and we had another strong count of this species. It was also a good year for Golden Eagle observation. Similarly to last year, some of the spring’s largest flights occurred at the South Lookout. This included the spectacular flight on 1 May, in which 9,628 raptors (mostly Broad-winged Hawks) were seen migrating. This flight began briefly at the North Lookout, but for most of the day birds were concentrated directly over the South Lookout. During the window for adult raptor migration this spring, sunshine (and thus thermal development) and frontal movements were seemingly a greater factor than wind direction in pushing migrants along. As Derby Hill protocol requires, counts were conducted at the North Lookout when winds had a southerly component, and at the South Lookout when winds had a northerly component. On easterly and westerly winds, counter discretion was used to determine which lookout would be ideal for observing the majority of the flight.
February 2018 was unusually mild, with temperatures reaching into the fifties. This led to an early push of some migrants. Thanks to Bill Purcell, Gerry Smith, Judy Thurber, Phil Taylor, and Kevin McGann, several days of counting were covered in late February before the official count period started. During this time, there was good species diversity, with some early movement of Red-tailed Hawks and Rough-legged Hawks.
In February, 96 raptors of 10 species were counted in 20.75 hours of coverage. Note that these numbers are not included in the official report totals, since the dates are not within the official count period.
Despite the mild weather in February, temperatures became much lower in March, with several periods of stormy weather. There were quite a few days with strong northwesterly winds and cold temperatures, making for a slow month overall. Although there was little snow accumulation, three stormy periods led to four days in which a count was not conducted. During the last week of the month, there was a nice push of migrants. However, note that most of these birds were Turkey Vultures. Unlike last year, we did not have good Red-tailed Hawk or Red-shouldered Hawk flights in late March. The relatively mild winter may have caused some raptors (especially Red-tailed Hawks, Rough-legged Hawks, and Cooper’s Hawks) to winter in areas north of Derby Hill. As a result, these birds would have gone undetected. The two largest flights of the month occurred at the North Lookout. Quite a few Golden Eagles were seen this spring, probably because the birds were skirting around weather systems, which caused them to pass Derby Hill.
In March, 5,204 raptors of 14 species were counted in 176.75 hours of coverage.
April was relatively busy, and again, the numbers can be largely attributed to Turkey Vultures. The first few Broad-winged Hawks arrived on 18 April, trickling in for several days thereafter before flight strength increased nicely. Highlights included four days with 1,800+ Broad-winged Hawks and six days with 1,000+ Turkey Vultures (including 3,582 Turkey Vultures on 2 April).
Some of the stronger flights began at the North Lookout, but were sometimes aided by lake breeze kicking in. This helped us to detect more birds because it often brought them inland and reduced lake corner-cutting.
Two Black Vultures were observed this month.
In April, 30,866 raptors of 16 species were counted in 215.5 hours of coverage.
May kicked off with a grand beginning, in which 9,628 migrating raptors were observed on 1 May. 9,008 of these birds were Broad-winged Hawks. A nice morning clean-up flight occurred on 2 May, with 3,853 birds counted (3,085 of which were Broad-winged Hawks). Nearly ¼ of the total season count occurred in just two days. After those two days, the adult Broad-winged Hawk flight was mostly over, and things slowed down considerably. A few bursts of young broad-wing movement occurred in late May, including 1,115 raptors on 21 May and 821 raptors on 30 May.
Similarly to last season, there was a nice push of southern Bald Eagle movement during this month, especially in the final week of May. This included a new record high day count of 93 Bald Eagles on 30 May.
Two Black Vultures and one Swallow-tailed Kite were seen this month. The Swallow-tailed Kite was certainly a rarity, with only three other records of this species in the history of migration monitoring at Derby Hill.
In May, 21,273 raptors of 17 species were counted in 221.75 hours of coverage.
A total of four Black Vultures were observed in spring 2018. One individual was seen on 23 April, 27 April, 1 May, and 17 May. Since 2010, at least two Black Vultures have been recorded each season. The total of four this year was just below last year’s (and 2012’s) record count of six birds.
A total of 24,446 Turkey Vultures were officially counted this season, and this number is the second highest total for the species on record (just below the 2017 count of 26,111 birds). Four-digit numbers were reported on six days this season. Movement peaked in early April, mostly during the first week of the month. Turkey Vulture movement slowed down considerably in May. The first Turkey Vultures were noted in late February, and the peak flight included 3,582 birds on 2 April. A piebald leucistic Turkey Vulture was seen on 23 April. Interestingly, it was being chased by a Turkey Vulture with fully pigmented plumage.
Spring 2018 gave us 367 Ospreys, which is below the 10-year average. The first two birds arrived on 31 March, and the high count occurred on 1 May, with 63 birds seen. Osprey numbers have varied considerably within the last ten years, with between ~300-700 individuals seen per season. Numbers at Derby Hill this year may have been affected by the presence of local birds, especially at the South Lookout, where I used caution in counting Ospreys due to the presence of birds nesting on the nearby cell tower. These birds did not appear to have nesting success, because sticks kept falling through the top of the tower. Interestingly, three possibly polygamous Ospreys were repeatedly present at the nest (they appeared to be two males and one female).
The fourth Swallow-tailed Kite ever counted at Derby Hill was seen on 12 May, which was the same day as Discover Derby Hill Day. The bird was first spotted by Joe Brin, who was leading a bird walk nearby, and he called up to the North Lookout to notify us of the sighting. Several minutes later, the bird flew up from the trees and gave us a decent look for several seconds, flying off to the southwest. Several visitors were treated to a view of this beautiful, graceful bird.
971 Bald Eagles were officially counted passing Derby Hill, which is a new official record for this count site. The previous official record was of 913 birds last year, followed by 722 birds in 2014. In late April, and on and off during much of May, there were several periods in which strong Bald Eagle movement occurred. At this point, most of the migrants were presumably southern “Florida” birds (wandering post-breeding adults, juveniles that hatched this spring, and older immatures). The busiest day for Bald Eagle movement was on 30 May, when 93 individuals passed the North Lookout (a new record one-day count for the species at Derby Hill). On 28 May, there was an incredible one-hour burst of 41 Bald Eagles from 11:00 am to 12:00 pm EST. This included a single kettle of 10 individuals. Bald Eagle numbers have varied quite a bit in recent years (with a jump upwards starting in 2011), but the big increase both last spring and this spring is certainly interesting. Many of the late spring birds were immatures. Braddock Bay also reported high eagle numbers for the spring. It is incredible to consider the increase in Bald Eagle numbers that has occurred compared to the first few years of counting at Derby Hill. Only ~10-20 Bald Eagles per season were observed in 1979/the mid-1980s.
Early in the season, I used caution in counting Bald Eagles due to the presence of wintering birds. Unlike last spring, an adult pair of Bald Eagles did not appear to establish themselves in the area, so I did not have to deal with the late season issue of discerning locals from migrants.
In 2018, a total of 393 Northern Harriers were officially counted, which is below the ten-year average of 464. Harrier numbers vary considerably from year to year. The birds were occasionally challenging to count due to the frequent presence of hunting birds, especially at the South Lookout. Our busiest harrier count occurred on 22 April, when 46 individuals passed. As is well-known, harriers showed little to no hesitation to migrate in light rain, especially when adults were moving through. However, harrier migration in drizzly weather was less intense compared to last spring.
2,047 Sharp-shinned Hawks were officially counted, which is well below the ten-year average of 3,229 (and much lower than some of the early years of counting at Derby Hill). Sharpies were coming through slowly from late March to mid-May, with a peak count of only 197 birds on 1 May. Movement peaked in late April into early May. It is likely that quite a few sharpies were missed on South Lookout days, since the species is prone to flying below treeline and close to Lake Ontario regardless of wind direction. Very low birds flying close to the shoreline would not have been visible from the South Lookout. Derby Hill’s protocol does not allow combining counts from separate observers at the two lookouts. Sharpies sometimes spiraled to the top of kettles of Broad-winged Hawks. On days in which broad-wings were at nearly invisible heights, sharpies were surely missed due to their smaller size and higher altitude. When thermal conditions were poor, decent sharpie flights still occurred, with birds streaming through low and fast. However, there was a disturbing lack of large sharpie flights this season.
There is cause for concern regarding this species’ population. Multiple hawkwatch sites have reported declining numbers, which may be related to declining songbird prey populations.
177 Cooper’s Hawks were officially counted this spring, which is well below the ten-year average of 279. Cooper’s Hawk numbers at Derby Hill have been historically quite variable. As is typical, most of the spring’s Cooper’s Hawks passed in late March and early April. A local adult Cooper’s Hawk was often seen, particularly at the South Lookout where it spent time hunting and displaying.
Only five Northern Goshawks were counted this season. All of these were immature birds. Due to the mild winter, an absence of goshawks makes sense, since the species is irruptive and many birds may have remained at points north, especially if prey was plentiful. However, this is the fourth season in a row with a very low (between 5-10 birds) count.
335 Red-shouldered Hawks were officially observed this season. This is well below the ten-year average of 456. The first birds arrived in late February, and the peak day count of 69 birds occurred on 31 March. After 2 April, red-shoulder movement slowed to a trickle. Young birds composed most of the flight during the later part of the season.
It was a good year for Broad-winged Hawks passing Derby Hill, with a total of 25,820 birds recorded. This is above the ten-year average of 20,207. The first seven broad-wings of the 2018 season were noted on 18 April (which is rather late), with triple-digit counts following soon after beginning on 21 April. A spectacularly busy day occurred on 1 May, in which 9,008 broad-wings passed. By examining radar and scanning in all directions, it seemed evident that the majority of this flight passed directly over the South Lookout. Many of the birds were kettling and streaming at low altitudes during mid-day, becoming higher and more spread out again in the later afternoon. Other busy days included 2,183 birds on 23 April, 2,434 birds on 30 April, and 3,085 birds on 2 May (the latter being mostly a morning clean-up flight). There were a few decent flights of immature broad-wings, including 936 birds on 21 May and 460 birds on 30 May. However, there was not much of a young broad-wing movement past Derby Hill this year.
A young dark morph Broad-winged Hawk was a highlight of the season, and only the second record seen at Derby Hill. The bird passed the South Lookout on 21 May, and was observed several hours earlier flying past Braddock Bay (almost certainly the same individual, given its rarity).
A total of 2,193 Red-tailed Hawks were officially counted, which is below the ten-year average of 3,636. The first birds were seen in late February, with a peak of only 246 birds on 21 April. Several 100+ bird days occurred in late March and April. It is likely that, as a result of the mild winter, many red-tails stayed up north. A dark morph adult bird was observed on 11 April. Red-tails were not observed nesting near the South Lookout this season, although there was at least one pair hanging around the area. The nest that was active and visible from the South Lookout last year blew down. Care was taken in counting red-tails, especially at the South Lookout, in order to avoid counting local birds. These birds were usually easily distinguished from migrants by their behavior (such as frequent kiting and sometimes courtship behavior).
This spring, only 73 rough-legs were officially counted passing Derby Hill, which is below the ten-year average of 166. The irruptive nature of this species’ migration and the mild winter likely had an impact on this spring’s numbers. Although not included in the official count numbers, it is worth noting that 12 rough-legs were counted from 19 February to 28 February. It is also quite possible that others were on the move earlier on in the winter. The high day count of 10 occurred on 27 March, and the last rough-leg of the season was seen on 9 May.
Of the 76 birds that were seen well enough to reliably determine plumage (including birds seen in February), 79% were light and 21% were dark. We look forward to seeing more of this beautiful Derby Hill icon next season.
75 Golden Eagles were officially counted this spring, which is above the ten-year average of 58 birds. One additional bird was counted in late February. Golden Eagle numbers have shown a decline in recent years, which may be a result of mild winters keeping some of them up north. However, a count of 75 birds for the season is quite good. Weather patterns for the spring suggest that Golden Eagles were skirting around storm systems and passing over Derby Hill in greater numbers than normal, thus inflating the count. Many of these birds passed in the latter half of March. Immatures became more prevalent at the end of March and through April, with just six birds recorded in May. Quite a few immature birds were seen this season. The busiest Golden Eagle days occurred on 31 March (13 birds) and 23 April (11 birds).
343 kestrels were officially recorded this spring, which is close to the ten-year average of 336 birds. Kestrel numbers vary considerably from year to year. Kestrels have been declining in recent years, but numbers tend to jump up and down here at Derby Hill and are not as conducive to population monitoring compared to the larger datasets collected at more coastal sites. At the South Lookout, I used caution in counting birds due to the presence of a local pair (which were possibly using a nearby nestbox). An excellent day of kestrel movement occurred on 23 April, with 97 birds recorded. Kestrel movement tended to occur in several short one to three day bursts, especially during late April. Few birds were on the move in March and May, aside from the count of 42 kestrels on 1 May.
A total of 36 Merlins were officially recorded passing Derby Hill this spring, which is below the ten-year average of 53. It is important to note that Merlins were sometimes seen late in the day, migrating just before sunset. As a result, some Merlins were surely missed due to the timing of count hours. The first birds were seen in late February, with a high count of four birds on 22 April. There was never a real peak period, with birds seen here and there throughout the season. One Merlin (or multiple birds that paused to hunt) appeared to be hanging around near the North Lookout this spring, and was occasionally seen hunting back and forth along the bluff and perching.
Within the official count period, 2018 was a record spring for Peregrine Falcons (although 2017 ties this year’s total if February birds are included in the count). 27 peregrines were observed this spring. Although Derby Hill records very few peregrines compared to some coastal North American sites (and thus the sample size is small for purposes of population monitoring), it has been exciting to see a recent increase in numbers. There was a high day count of three birds on 25 March, and on 27 April. Twelve of this spring’s birds were seen during May, but sightings were sporadic overall. Most of this year’s peregrines traveled through low and quickly, but a few kettled up and soared, providing good views.
When time, weather, and volunteer assistance permitted, non-raptor migration was also followed this spring. March began with short-distance migrants, including spectacular flights of Snow Geese and American Crows. In contrast to last year, Blue Jay flights were relatively slow, with peak flights of just a few hundred birds. This was probably a result of the jays having enough food up North, resulting in a reduced need to migrate south for the winter. Late in April and throughout most of May, Neotropical migrants were on the move. However, the Neotropical migrant movement was relatively slow this spring, with some species appearing later than usual.
Snow Goose – Many Snow Geese came through during March. Peak flights included estimates of 23,250+ birds on 29 March and 17,320 birds on 30 March. Most of the flight was concentrated during these two days. The last Snow Goose was noted on 17 April.
This year’s Snow Goose peak occurred at about the same time as last year. Goose flocks were seen moving southwards on several days, probably because cold weather was temporarily pushing them back. Many of this year’s geese followed right along the lakeshore, but large flocks were also observed far out over the water and well inland.
Ross’s Goose – One Ross’s Goose was seen on 29 March amidst the 23,000+ Snow Geese.
Cackling Goose – A Cackling Goose was seen on 29 March among the Snow Geese.
Herons – Peak Great Blue Heron flights occurred on 28 March (21 birds), 31 March (36 birds), and 12 April (25 birds). Great Egrets were recorded on several days, including one on 28 March, one on 30 March, one on 17 April, two on 20 May, and one on 22 May. Green Herons were on the move mainly in May, with the first one noted on 25 April. A pair of Green Herons was noticed exhibiting nesting behavior (including nesting calls) in the spruce near the garage, but a nest was never found.
Sandhill Crane – A nice total of 30 Sandhill Cranes were recorded this spring, with sightings scattered throughout much of the season. A single flock of five birds was seen on 1 April.
Shorebirds – Killdeer began arriving in mid March. Unlike last year, large movements of this species were not noted. A single flock of 52 Whimbrel was a wonderful highlight on 22 May. Other flyovers included Greater Yellowlegs (one on 12 April), Least Sandpiper (one on 18 May), Solitary Sandpiper (seen on several days in May, including four on 9 May), and Spotted Sandpiper (one on 9 May). American Woodcocks were observed displaying near both lookouts.
Gulls & Terns – There were no substantial movements observed this spring. Eight Bonaparte’s Gulls were seen on 31 March, and several others of this species were sighted in April. An Iceland Gull was seen on 6 March. One Black Tern was seen on 27 May. Common Terns were observed fairly regularly in May, especially in the evenings.
Loons – Several days of large Common Loon flights occurred in mid-April, including a conservative estimate of 250 birds on 17 April. Two Red-throated Loons were seen on 18 April.
Owls – Barred Owls occasionally called near the South Lookout. Snowy and Long-eared Owls were not observed this spring.
Common Nighthawk – The first 44 Common Nighthawks of the season were observed on 20 May. 21 birds were seen on 28 May. Other than these flights, little nighthawk movement was observed. Myself and other observers tried to be present to observe flights whenever conditions seemed favorable. However, it should be noted that nighthawk count coverage was inconsistent this spring.
Northern Flicker – Flicker movement was relatively slow this spring. The high count was 174 birds on 24 April.
Flycatchers – The first Eastern Phoebe of the season was seen on 31 March. Alder, Willow, and Least Flycatchers were observed in April/May.
Northern Shrike – A Northern Shrike perched in plain view across the street from the South Lookout on 15 March, and another was seen in the same area on 20 April.
Blue Jay – Blue Jay flights were quite slow this season. The largest flight that was actually counted was only 450+ birds on 9 May. This is a huge contrast to last spring, in which ~10,695 Blue Jays passed on 1 May. The massive difference in numbers is likely a result of plentiful food up North, which reduced the need to migrate southwards last winter.
Crows – The biggest flights of American Crows occurred on 21 February (4,152 birds), 26 March (1,206+ birds), and 27 March (at least 1,115 birds). Several Fish Crow sightings included one bird on 1 May and two birds on 9 May. All Fish Crows were identified by call.
Tree Swallow – The first Tree Swallows were noted on 31 March.
Common Raven – Ravens were observed on many days this spring, especially at the South Lookout. The birds were quite vocal and playful, often doing barrel rolls in midair.
Black-capped Chickadee – Unfortunately, no substantial movements were noted.
Winter Wren – One Winter Wren was observed singing on 22 April.
Eastern Bluebird – There was a substantial movement of bluebirds in May, with a peak flight of 65 birds on 22 May. Several other May days had counts in the thirties and forties.
American Robin – Robin flights were quite slow this year, with several hundred moving on a few mornings in March. The peak flight that was counted (although probably not the largest actual flight of the season) included only about 330 birds.
Northern Mockingbird – A single mockingbird was observed on 3 May, 5 May, 6 May, and 24 May. The individual that was seen in early May could have been the same bird being seen repeatedly. This species is seen on an occasional basis at Derby Hill.
Waxwings – Interestingly, Cedar Waxwing movement occurred sporadically throughout the season, instead of being confined mostly to May. About 197 birds passed on 26 March and 313 birds passed on 3 April, which is quite early. 179 birds passed on 28 May, and there were several other May mornings in which much larger (untallied) flights of a few hundred birds passed. Bohemian Waxwings were not observed this year.
Warblers – There was a strange lack of intense warbler flights this year. A beautiful male Golden-winged Warbler was observed on 2 May, and a number of other warbler species arrived on this same date. Despite the lack of strong morning flights, decent warbler diversity enlivened the hedgerows.
Sparrows – On several mornings in late March and April, good numbers of Song, White-throated, White-crowned, and Chipping Sparrows showed up at the North Lookout. Savannah Sparrows were frequently seen at the South Lookout, and Vesper Sparrows were sometimes present at the South Lookout in early April. A Fox Sparrow was observed on 29 March at the North Lookout.
Blackbirds, etc. – Blackbirds were on the move beginning in late February, and continued in strong numbers into late March and early April. 5,200+ Red-winged Blackbirds were recorded on 26 March, and 2,000+ Common Grackles passed on the same day. In late April, some flights of Rusty Blackbirds were moving. The first two Eastern Meadowlarks were seen on 28 February. Baltimore Orioles were exciting to watch in morning flights, but large-scale movements of hundreds were not noted this year. The largest counted Baltimore Oriole flight this season included 65 birds on 9 May. Only one Orchard Oriole was observed on 30 May.
Winter Irruptives – It was not a very good year for irruptive sightings. A few Pine Siskin flocks were observed, but Evening Grosbeaks were absent. Red-breasted Nuthatches were not observed. Purple Finches passed sporadically and visited the feeders in small groups, but large-scale movements of this species were not observed.
Butterflies –Black Swallowtails became numerous in May, and a few Monarchs were observed in the later part of the month. Nine Monarchs and one Giant Swallowtail were seen on 29 May. Some Mourning Cloaks were seen in the earlier part of the season. A few Red Admirals passed, but there were not substantial flights of this species.
A big thank you to Bill Purcell for covering the count on my days off, and for implementing the new Dunkadoo program at Derby Hill. Bill generously donated a tablet, anti-glare screen, tablet stand, and his own time in setting up the app. This app is a great technological advancement in that it provides live count updates for anyone with an internet connection. It also saves the counter time in data entry. Bill also helped update the running-total white board (generously donated by Tom Carrolan) at the North Lookout kiosk. Thank you to Carol Goodman for helping to answer questions regarding Dunkadoo set-up and usage. Bill and several other volunteers (including Kevin McGann and Mike Tetlow) helped to keep a count of birds at the South Lookout while I moved count headquarters. Thanks to Mike Tetlow from Braddock Bay for messaging me about flight status. Many observers pointed out birds: Chris & Sally Holt, Phil Taylor, Pete Davidson, Judy Thurber, Jay & Pat Chapman, Judy Wright, Ken Burdick, Kevin McGann, Joe Carey, Andy Francis, Andy Saunders, Bill Purcell, Gerry Smith, David Wheeler, Deborah Dohne, Dave Fitch, Joe Brin, Charlie Long, Chris Reynolds, Mike Tetlow, David Babb, Rosemary Hanagan, Don Metzger, Tom Carrolan, and many others are greatly appreciated. We continued to enjoy visitors from hawk watches throughout Pennsylvania, New England, eastern Canada, and other areas. Thank you to Gerry Smith for continuing to provide wonderful stories and perspectives about Derby Hill’s history. Gerry and Judy Thurber often helped to greet visitors and educate people about Derby Hill, especially when I was too busy to do so. Thank you to Dave Fitch for his excellent management of the site, along with Gerry’s help. Dave Fitch also helped to keep the cottage where I stayed in working order. Many thanks to Dave for his donation of “The Big Coat” for counter use on frigid days. Don Metzger donated a sturdy and weatherproof table for the counter’s use. Gerry, Bill, Judy, and others were very helpful in keeping track of non-raptor counts, which I often included in daily reports. Many thanks to Alison Kocek for diligently keeping the Derby Hill facebook page updated with my reports, and for giving me access to the facebook page as a moderator. This was a helpful way for me to directly answer page visitors’ questions. Tom Riley published the Rough-leg newsletter. The Discover Derby Hill Bird Festival was a great success thanks to the committee and volunteers. Maryanne Adams and Judy Thurber did a beautiful job maintaining the Fritz Scheider garden. Ken Hodgson continues to maintain the grounds and keep the trails and lookouts in excellent condition. Judy Thurber checked the bluebird/Tree Swallow boxes to see which ones were occupied this spring. Ken and Rose Burdick and Judy Thurber facilitated the Birdathon and the following compilation picnic. Dave Fitch, Judy Thurber, and other visitors regularly donated suet cakes and birdseed. Many people, including those mentioned above who helped to spot birds, provided moral support, good company, and delicious snacks. Derby Hill keeps going strong thanks to the generosity, experience, and enthusiasm of so many, and I can’t thank you all enough. My apologies to anyone whom I may have missed. It was wonderful to spend a second season at Derby Hill.