By Anna Stunkel, Derby Hill Hawk Counter, Spring 2017
Introductory Note from the Counter
Before coming to Derby Hill, I had been counting for five seasons at several fall and spring hawk watch locations, including Hawk Hill, California; Lucky Peak, Idaho; Bradbury Mountain State Park, Maine; and Kiptopeke State Park, Virginia. Each one of these sites, including Derby Hill, is unique. I have loved getting to know each place and its differences, from species composition and timing of the flights to the varying effects of landscape and weather on migration. I found the Derby Hill hawk counting position advertised on the Ornithological Societies of North America job board, and it instantly stood out as an incredible place to watch raptor and general avian migration.
Derby Hill is special in that the migration is very intense here at the southeastern corner of Lake Ontario. This is especially true during the period adult raptors are in a hurry to establish their breeding territories. Migrants are generally reluctant to fly over large bodies of water, and Derby Hill is located right where birds are turning the corner of the lake. As a result of this geography, many migrating birds concentrate as they follow the shoreline. The sheer volume of flights—especially Broad-winged Hawk and Turkey Vulture movements—was like nothing I had seen in the past. The numbers of Rough-legged Hawks and Bald Eagles at this site also amazed me, as did the scale of non-raptor morning flights and overall movements. It was an unforgettable spring, to say the least!
From 1 March to 31 May 2017, 68,486 migrant raptors of 17 species were noted during 628.75 hours of observation from the North and South Lookouts at Derby Hill Bird Observatory near Mexico, New York, Oswego County. Rarities included six Black Vultures and five Swainson’s Hawks. This busy season set a new record count for Derby Hill, with new season highs reached for Turkey Vultures, Bald Eagles, and Peregrine Falcons. Red-shouldered Hawk and Broad-winged Hawk numbers were also considerably higher than they have been in recent years. Interestingly (and contrary to typical seasons), many of the spring’s largest flights occurred at the South Lookout. During the window for adult raptor migration, sunshine (and thus thermal development) seemed to be a greater factor than wind direction in pushing migrants along. As Derby Hill protocol requires, counts were conducted at the North Lookout when winds had a southerly component, and at the South Lookout when winds had a northerly component. On easterly and westerly winds, counter discretion was used to determine which lookout would be ideal for observing the majority of the flight.
February 2017 was unusually mild, with temperatures reaching the 50s and even up to 60. This led to an early push of some migrants. Thanks to Bill Purcell, Gerry Smith, Ken Burdick, and Kevin McGann, several days of counting were covered in late February before the official count period started. During this time, there was good species diversity, with a notable early movement of Red-tailed Hawks.
In February, 197 raptors of 12 species were counted in 39 hours of coverage. Note that these numbers are not included in the official report totals, since the dates are not within the official count period.
Despite the mild weather in February, temperatures plunged to more wintry levels throughout much of March. There were quite a few days with strong northwesterly winds and cold temperatures, making for a slow month overall. There was little snow, with just one small storm during the middle of the month. In the latter half of the month, there was a stretch of cloudy days with some precipitation, but when the sun began to come out during the last week of March, a big push of migrants occurred. Two large South Lookout flights occurred on winds with a northerly component. These flights brought many Turkey Vultures, Red-tailed Hawks, and Red-shouldered Hawks past the lookouts. Golden Eagle migration tended to be concentrated on just a few days during the month. The relatively mild winter may have caused some raptors (especially Red-tailed Hawks, Rough-legged Hawks, and Golden Eagles) to winter in areas north of Derby Hill. As a result, these birds would have gone undetected.
In March, 7,837 raptors of 14 species were counted in 170 hours of coverage.
Following the generally slow month of March, April was wonderfully busy. There were excellent numbers of Turkey Vultures and Broad-winged Hawks. Highlights included three days with 4,200-plus Broad-winged Hawks and six days with 1,000-plus Turkey Vultures (including 4,201 Turkey Vultures 5 April).
Again, contradicting trends of previous years, some of April’s busiest flights occurred at the South Lookout. Our first 5,000-plus day of the season was unexpected and spectacular and occurred 21 April, when fog suddenly lifted and the sun came out.
Diversity as well as numbers brought added excitement to the month, with six Black Vultures and five Swainson’s Hawks observed. Three of the Swainson’s Hawks were photographed at close range.
In April, 47,547 raptors of 17 species were counted in 251.5 hours of coverage. This was a record April count for Derby Hill.
Despite three brief periods of very slow days with poor weather (including precipitation and/or northerly/northeasterly winds), there were several nicely busy days in May. On 17 May, many birds passed areas surrounding Derby Hill undetected (as evidenced by Braddock Bay’s count of over 9,000 raptors that day, compared with our count of 1,427 raptors). While warm westerly/southwesterly winds are ideal for the Braddock Bay count site, these winds cause raptors to become very high and spread out by the time they reach Derby Hill.
During the last few days of the count, there was a late season push of young Broad-winged Hawks and southern Bald Eagles. Unlike the period of adult raptor migration, big flights were generally confined to days with favorable winds, as young birds were not in a hurry to reach breeding grounds.
In May, 13,102 raptors of 15 species were counted in 207.25 hours of coverage.
A few 100-plus bird days were observed in mid-June; these flights were mainly composed of Broad-wings, Turkey Vultures, and Bald Eagles. A late Northern Goshawk was seen 17 June. Thanks to Bill Purcell for covering these days.
In June, 388 raptors of eight species were counted in 20 hours of coverage. Note that these numbers are not included in the official report totals, since the dates are not within the official count period.
2017 was an excellent year for Black Vulture sightings, with a total of six individuals seen. This included three birds that were seen 5 April and individuals seen 3 April, 8 April, and 16 April. Two of the birds 5 April were flying together. This season count tied the previous record, set in 2012. Could it be surpassed next year?
A total of 26,111 Turkey Vultures were officially counted this season; this number is several thousand birds above the previous 2014 record count of 22,438. Four-digit numbers were reported on eight days this season. During the peak in early April, vultures were coming through in high numbers for multiple days in a row. Turkey Vulture movement slowed down considerably in May. The first Turkey Vultures were noted in late February, and the peak flight was 4,201 birds 5 April. A great hour 5 April produced 1,192 birds passing low over the South Lookout from 11:00 a.m. to noon EST.
Spring 2017 gave us 441 Ospreys, which is slightly below the 10-year average. The first bird arrived 27 March, and the high count occurred 27 April, with 63 birds seen. Osprey numbers have varied considerably within the last 10 years, with some 300 to 700 individuals per season. Numbers at Derby Hill this year may have been affected by the presence of local birds, especially at the South Lookout, where I used caution in counting Ospreys due to the presence of a pair nesting on a nearby cell tower. At first, the local pair had difficulty establishing a nest because sticks were falling through the tower’s bars, but they eventually appeared to complete a full build.
Officially, 913 Bald Eagles were counted passing Derby Hill, a new record for this count site. The previous official record was 680 birds in 2014. Note that, including counts from February and June, a whopping total of just over 1,000 migrating Bald Eagles were seen this spring. In late April, mid-May, and late May, there were several periods in which strong Bald Eagle movement occurred. At this point, most of the migrants were presumably southern “Florida” birds (wandering post-breeding adults, juveniles that hatched this spring, and older immatures). The busiest day for Bald Eagle movement was 29 May, when 70 individuals passed the North Lookout, including an incredible 31 birds in a single hour from 4:00 to 5:00 p.m. EST. Bald Eagle numbers have varied quite a bit in recent years (with a jump upwards starting in 2011), but this spring’s big increase is certainly interesting. Many of the late spring birds were immatures. Braddock Bay also reported numbers far higher than those previously recorded in a spring season. It is incredible to consider the increase in Bald Eagle numbers that has occurred compared to the first few years of counting at Derby Hill. Only some 10 to 20 Bald Eagles per season were observed in 1979 through the mid-1980s. One possibly leucistic immature Bald Eagle was observed in late May this spring.
Early in the season, I used caution in counting Bald Eagles due to the presence of wintering birds. Caution was also necessary later on, when an adult pair became established in the area. However, these adults were relatively easy to discern from migrants based on behavior.
In 2017, a total of 623 Northern Harriers were officially counted, which is above the 10-year average of 504. Harrier numbers vary considerably from year to year. The birds were challenging to count at times due to the frequent presence of hunting birds, especially at the South Lookout. One of these birds, a beautiful pale juvenile, was individually recognizable and remained in the area for several days. Our busiest harrier count occurred 4 April, when 76 individuals passed the North Lookout on a drizzly day. As is well-known, these harriers showed little to no hesitation to migrate in light rain, especially when adults were moving through. On some days, they asctually seemed to prefer migrating in this weather.
Sharp-shinned Hawks officially numbered 4,271, which is above the 10-year average of 3,445 and considerably higher than the past two springs (but much lower than some of the early years of counting at Derby Hill). Sharpies were coming through slowly but steadily from late March to mid-May, with a few peak days (especially 27 April with 412 birds and 1 May with 559 birds). It is likely that quite a few Sharpies were missed on South Lookout days, since the species is prone to flying below treeline and close to Lake Ontario regardless of wind direction. Very low birds flying close to the shoreline would not have been visible from the South Lookout. Derby Hill’s protocol does not allow combining counts from separate observers at the two lookouts. Sharpies often spiraled to the top of kettles of Broad-winged Hawks. On days in which Broad-wings were at nearly invisible heights, Sharpies were surely missed due to their smaller size and higher altitude. When thermal conditions were poor, large Sharpie flights still occurred, with birds streaming through low and fast.
There is cause for concern regarding this species’ population. Multiple hawk-watch sites have reported declining numbers, which may be related to declining songbird prey populations.
A total of 326 Cooper’s Hawks were officially counted this spring, which is similar to the 10-year average of 294. Cooper’s Hawk numbers at Derby Hill have been historically quite variable. As is typical, most of this spring’s Cooper’s Hawks passed in late March and early April. A local adult Cooper’s Hawk (or perhaps a pair) was often seen, particularly at the South Lookout where it spent time hunting, displaying, and perching on the nearby silo.
Only 10 Northern Goshawks were officially counted this season, along with a single adult that was seen passing the North Lookout. Owing to protocol, the latter adult bird could not be counted, since I was watching at the South Lookout while it was seen by another observer. With the exception of this bird, no other certain adults were seen. Due to the mild winter, an absence of Goshawks makes sense, since the species is irruptive; many birds may have remained at points north, especially if prey was plentiful. However, this is the third season in a row with a very low (between 5-10 birds) Goshawk count.
It was an excellent spring for Red-shouldered Hawk sightings, with a total of 803 birds officially observed. This is well above the 10-year average of 476. The first birds arrived in late February, and several major Red-shoulder flights occurred 29 March (212 birds), 30 March (127 birds), and 2 April (104 birds). The first immature bird of the season was seen 28 March, with young birds composing most of the flight during the later part of the season.
It was an excellent year for Broad-winged Hawks passing Derby Hill, with a total of 30,334 birds recorded. This is well above the 10-year average of 19,607. The first five Broad-wings of the 2017 season were noted 9 April, with triple-digit counts beginning 13 April. Several very busy days bolstered the count, including 5,103 birds 21 April; 4,951 birds 23 April; and 4,285 birds 28 April. It is very interesting to note that, contrary to typical movement patterns at Derby Hill, each of these big flights was observed from the South Lookout. There were also impressive flights of immature birds, including 1,045 birds 17 May; 1,306 birds 29 May; and 842 birds 31 May. When immatures were moving through, favorable winds became a much more important factor in pushing migration along; each of these latter flights was observed from the North Lookout.
A total of 3,852 Red-tailed Hawks were officially counted, which is similar to the 10-year average. The first birds were seen in late February, with a peak of 567 birds 29 March. Several 200- to 300-bird days occurred in early April. It is likely that, as a result of the mild winter, many Red-tails stayed up north. Two leucistic Red-tails were seen, including one stunning individual that was almost completely white, with just a small amount of pigment spotting its plumage. The other bird was piebald in coloration. Unfortunately, no dark or rufous morphs were identified this year. A pair of Red-tails nested far across the fields adjacent to and east of the South Lookout. The nest was newly built this year, and in May the pair had at least two chicks, which appeared healthy and strong. Another pair seemed to be hanging about in a nearby territory, often hunting above the stand of pines south of the South Lookout.
This spring, only 118 Rough-legs were officially counted passing Derby Hill, a number below the 10-year average of 188. The irruptive nature of this species’ migration and the mild winter likely had an impact on this spring’s numbers. Although not included in the official count numbers, it is worth noting that 17 Rough-legs were counted from 18 February to 28 February. It is also quite possible that others were on the move earlier on in the winter. The high day-count of 13 occurred 4 April, and the last Rough-leg of the season was seen 21 May.
Of the 116 birds seen well enough to reliably determine plumage (including birds seen in February), 72 percent were light and 28 percent were dark. The percentage of dark birds was slightly above average this year. We look forward to seeing more of this beautiful Derby Hill icon next season.
Five Swainson’s Hawks were seen passing Derby Hill this year, an exciting occurrence considering the fact that zero to two birds is a more typical spring count. All these birds passed in April. Two individuals were seen 15 April, including one high-flying dark-morph bird of unknown age, and one low-flying light-morph immature bird. The third bird passed on the following day, 16 April, and was a dark- or intermediate-morph immature bird. Another Swainson’s passed low 21 April, and was an immature light-morph. The last bird passed 26 April and was a dark-morph of unknown age. All these birds came through on days with moderate to substantial Broad-winged Hawk movement, and it is likely that they were following Broad-wing kettles. Easily identifiable photographs were obtained of three out of the five birds, and four of the birds were flying quite low. This was especially thrilling to visitors, considering that the species is known to be high-flying while on migration.
Some 36 Golden Eagles were officially counted this spring, which is below the 10-year average of 59 birds. Three additional birds were counted in late February. Golden Eagle numbers have shown a decline in recent years, which may be a result of mild winters keeping some of them up north. In March, adult Golden Eagle movement tended to be concentrated on three days of the month, each of which totaled six to seven individuals. Immatures became more prevalent at the end of March and through April, with just two birds recorded in May. Unfortunately, 2017 lacked a substantial movement of immature birds. Despite several good days of adult movement, this lack of young birds kept the total count low.
This spring produced a good number of Kestrels for this watch site, with a total of 500 birds officially recorded. Kestrel numbers vary considerably from year to year, with a 10-year average of 341 birds. Kestrel numbers in general have been declining in recent years, but numbers tend to fluctuate here at Derby Hill, making them not as useful for population monitoring as are the larger datasets collected at more coastal sites. At the South Lookout, I used caution in counting birds due to the presence of a local pair using a nearby nestbox. An excellent day of Kestrel movement occurred 4 April, with 100 birds recorded (coincidentally, exactly 1/5 of the count total). Kestrel movement tended to occur in several short one- to two-day bursts, especially during late March and April. Few birds were on the move in May, with just 25 seen.
A total of 80 Merlins were officially recorded passing Derby Hill this spring, which is above the 10-year average of 54. It is important to note that Merlins were often seen late in the day, oftentimes migrating just before sunset. As a result, some Merlins were surely missed due to the timing of count hours. The first birds were seen in late February, with a peak period in late March and 10 birds 26 March. One Merlin (or multiple birds that paused to hunt) appeared to be hanging around near the North Lookout this spring and was regularly seen perching and hunting back and forth along the bluff.
2017 was a record spring for Peregrine Falcons, with a total of 25 birds officially recorded and two additional birds in late February. This was slightly above the previous record of 21 birds in 2012. Although Derby Hill records very few Peregrines compared to some coastal North American sites (and thus the sample size is small for purposes of population monitoring), it has been exciting to see a recent increase in numbers. Fourteen of this spring’s birds were seen during May, with four birds each seen 9 May and 10 May. Most of the birds in May appeared to be adults and were likely of the tundrius subspecies. A few birds were seen far out over the lake, and it is possible that a larger Peregrine migration occurs out over the water. Most of this year’s Peregrines traveled through low and quickly, but a few kettled up and soared overhead, providing good views.
When time, weather, and volunteer assistance permitted, non-raptor migration was also followed this spring. March began with short-distance migrants, including spectacular flights of Snow Geese and American Crows. Blue Jays also came through in immense numbers, with flights beginning in late April and lasting well into May. Late in April and throughout most of May, Neotropical migrants were on the move.
Snow Goose. Flights in the 5,000 to 6,700 range began in late February, and many geese came through during March. There was an astounding flight of about 33,400 Snow Geese 27 March, estimated by Wayne Fidler. Another major flight occurred 26 March, with about 14,100 birds seen.
This year’s Snow Goose peak occurred much later than last year’s, in which major movements happened in early March. Goose flocks were seen moving southward on several days, probably because cold weather was temporarily pushing them back. Many of this year’s Snow Geese followed right along the lakeshore, but large flocks were also seen far out over the water and well inland.
Ross’ Goose. Six Ross’ Geese were seen 27 March amidst the 33,000-plus Snow Geese.
Eared Grebe. An Eared Grebe in breeding plumage brought much excitement to the local birding community 19 May. It was observed for several hours from the bluff, sitting on the lake and sometimes associating with Long-tailed Ducks. Many thanks to a sharp-eyed student in Alan Belford’s SUNY-ESF Field Ornithology class for spotting this bird.
Herons. An incredible flight of 145 Great Blue Herons occurred 24 March, with birds coming through in a relatively steady stream throughout the day. Birds were spread out, with many over the lake, often in groups of two to nine individuals. Other large Great Blue Heron flights occurred 26 March (42 birds) and 27 March (43 birds). Great Egrets were recorded on several days, including one 26 April, three flying together 4 May, and one 20 May. Green Herons were on the move mainly in May, with eight seen 17 May.
An American Bittern was seen several times in Sage Creek Marsh this spring.
Sandhill Crane. An amazing total of 48 Sandhill Cranes were recorded this spring, with sightings scattered throughout much of the season. Highlights included 10 birds 2 April (including a single flock of eight) and a flock of seven birds 1 May.
Shorebirds. Killdeer arrived early, with the first bird sighted 23 February. There were several days with strong Killdeer movement, including 106 birds 26 March and 101 birds 27 March. Other flyovers included Wilson’s Snipe, Solitary Sandpiper (with a high count of eight 1 May), and Lesser Yellowlegs. American Woodcocks were observed displaying near both lookouts.
Gulls and Terns. There were no substantial movements observed this spring. One Iceland Gull was seen 16 April, and a few Common Terns were observed in May.
American White Pelican. Three White Pelicans were observed this season. A single bird was spotted20 May by Jay McGowan, flying east of the South Lookout. Two birds were spotted by Kevin McGann 23 May, flying together low over the lake. These were exciting finds considering that the species is rare at Derby Hill. Several other White Pelican sightings occurred in surrounding areas this spring.
Owls. One Snowy Owl was at the South Lookout 16 March, and Long-eared Owls were heard on a few nights in March. Barred Owls occasionally called near the South Lookout.
Common Nighthawk. Some 46 Common Nighthawks passed the North Lookout 18 May, and 50 birds passed 28 May. Nighthawk movements were relatively spread out this year, without any huge single-day movements.
Northern Flicker. Flicker movement was relatively slow this spring. The high count was 215 birds 11 April.
Flycatchers. The first two Eastern Phoebes were seen 28 March. Alder, Willow, and Least Flycatchers were observed in April and May.
Northern Shrike. This species was missed this year.
Blue Jay. The first big flight of Blue Jays occurred 27 April, and numbers continued to be on the move until nearly the end of May. Many strong flights passed, with at least 14 1,000-plus bird days this season. The largest recorded flight this spring was of around 10,695 birds 1 May.
Crows. The biggest flights of American Crows happened before the start of the official season, including 3,484 22 February and 7,086 23 February. Several Fish Crow sightings included single birds 25 April, 26 April, and 14 May. All Fish Crows were identified by call.
Tree Swallow. The first bird was seen 24 March, with 23 observed 27 March and hundreds soon after.
Common Raven. Ravens were observed on many days this spring, especially at the South Lookout. One Raven was seen carrying nesting material northeast past the North Lookout.
Black-capped Chickadee. Unfortunately, no substantial movements were noted.
Eastern Bluebird. Small flocks passed in late May, with 29 birds each 21 and 22 May.
American Robin. Best flights were an estimated 4,400 birds 26 March and about 7,133 birds 27 March. One leucistic piebald Robin was seen.
Northern Mockingbird. One Mockingbird was seen hanging around the North Lookout 11 April. This species is seen on an occasional basis at Derby Hill.
Waxwings. One Bohemian Waxwing was seen 18 March. The peak Cedar Waxwing flight occurred 22 May (an estimated 1,200 birds), with several other 100-plus bird days.
Warblers. Several big morning flights of Yellow-rumped Warblers, Yellow Warblers, American Redstarts, and Cape May Warblers occurred in May, with over 1,000 Yellow-rumps 1 May. A beautiful male Golden-winged Warbler was observed 1 May. Good warbler diversity brought color and excitement to the hedgerows this year.
Sparrows. On several mornings in late March and April, large numbers of Song, White-throated, White-crowned, and Chipping Sparrows showed up at the North Lookout. Savannah Sparrows were frequently seen at the South Lookout. A few Fox Sparrows were seen in late March.
Blackbirds. Blackbirds were on the move beginning in late February and continued in strong numbers into late March and early April. An estimated 5,484 Red-winged Blackbirds were recorded 27 March. In late April, large flights of Rusty Blackbirds were moving. The first Eastern Meadowlarks were seen 26 March. Baltimore Orioles were exciting to watch in morning flights, but large-scale movements of hundreds were not noted this year. Only two Orchard Orioles were recorded.
Winter Irruptives. It was not a very good year for irruptive sightings. A few Pine Siskin flocks were observed, but Evening Grosbeaks were absent. A few Red-breasted Nuthatches were seen in April and May. Around 125 Purple Finches passed 27 April, but there was generally little movement of this species observed.
Butterflies. Quite a few Red Admirals were seen this year, and a clear migration occurred on several days in April. Black Swallowtails became numerous in May, and a few Monarchs were observed in the latter part of the month. Other butterfly sightings included Mourning Cloak and Eastern Comma.
A big thank-you to Bill Purcell for covering the count on my days off. Bill also helped update the running-total white board (generously donated by Tom Carrolan) at the North Lookout kiosk. Bill and several other volunteers (including Kevin McGann and Judy Thurber) helped count the birds at the South Lookout while I moved count headquarters. Thanks to Mike Tetlow from Braddock Bay for messaging me about flight status. Many observers pointed out birds; Chris and Sally Holt, Phil Taylor, Pete Davidson, Wayne Fidler, Mary and Mark Magistro, Judy Thurber, Jay and Pat Chapman, Judy Wright, Ken Burdick, Kevin McGann, Joe Carey, Andy Francis, Andy Saunders, Bill Purcell, Gerry Smith, David Wheeler, Deborah Dohne, Dave Fitch, Joe Brin, Charlie Long, Chris Reynolds, Mike and Joann Tetlow, David Babb, Rosemary Hanagan, Don Metzger, and many others are greatly appreciated.
We continued to enjoy visitors from hawk watches throughout Pennsylvania and New England. Jon Kauffman, a former hawk counter at several other sites, was very helpful as the sole volunteer assisting me with spotting during one of the busiest counting periods of the season. Thank-you to Gerry Smith for help in covering some early morning watches, in getting acquainted with the site, and for providing wonderful stories and perspectives about Derby Hill’s history. Gerry Smith and Judy Thurber often helped to greet visitors and educate people about Derby Hill, especially when I was too busy to do so. Thank you to Dave Fitch for his excellent management of the site, along with Gerry’s help. Dave Fitch also helped keep the cottage where I stayed in working order. Wayne Fidler, Gerry, Bill, Judy, and others were very helpful in keeping track of non-raptor counts, which I often included in daily reports. Many thanks to Alison Kocek for diligently keeping Derby Hill’s Facebook page updated with my reports. Alison also regularly posted photos taken by myself and volunteers on the Facebook page. Tom Riley and Rose DeNeve published The Rough-leg newsletter and made sure we had an adequate supply available on the porch. Jason Sodergren of HMANA provided excellent logistical help with the hawkcount.org website.
The Discover Derby Hill Bird Festival was a great success despite less-than-ideal weather, thanks to the festival committee and volunteers, led by Maryanne Adams. Maryanne and Judy Thurber did a beautiful job maintaining the Fritz Scheider garden. Ken Hodgson continues to maintain the grounds and keep the trails and lookouts in excellent condition. Mary and Mark Magistro checked the Bluebird/Tree Swallow boxes to see which ones were occupied this spring. Ken and Rose Burdick facilitated the Birdathon and the following compilation picnic. Dave Fitch, Judy Thurber, and other visitors regularly donated suet cakes and birdseed. An anonymous donor left many bird and nature magazines on the porch for visitors. Many people, including those mentioned above who helped to spot birds, provided moral support, good company, and delicious snacks. Derby Hill keeps going strong thanks to the generosity, experience, and enthusiasm of so many persons, and I can’t thank you all enough. My apologies to anyone whom I may have missed.